(gram negative) and B. subtilis (gram positive) and (b) halophiles: halophilic bacterium sp. CAS  Mater Lett 62:2329–2331, Jang JS, Yu CJ, Choi SH, Ji SM, Kim ES, Lee JS (2008) Topotactic synthesis of mesoporous ZnS and ZnO nanoplates and their photocatalytic activity. 3b). Cytotoxic activity perhaps involves both the production of ROS and accumulation of nanoparticles in the cytoplasm or on the outer cell membrane. Nanoparticlesare chemically similar to other preparations of the same material. Mechanisms of zinc oxide nanoparticle antimicrobial activity. It has been suggested that negatively charged hydroxyl radicals and superoxide ions cannot penetrate into the cell membrane. TEM images of Escherichia coli (a), zinc oxide nanoparticles with E. coli at different stages (b and inset), Klebsiella pneumoniae (c), and zinc oxide nanoparticles with K. pneumoniae (d and inset) [120]. also showed excellent UV shielding ability and visible light transparency. Part of Toxicol Lett 199:389–339, Buerki-Thurnherr T, Xiao L, Diener L, Arslan O, Hirsch C, Maeder-Althaus X, Grieder K, Wampfler B, Mathur S, Wick P, Krug HF (2013) In vitro mechanistic study towards a better understanding of ZnO nanoparticle toxicity. Terms and Conditions, However, the production of ROS through photocatalysis causing bacterial cell death cannot be ignored [112]. Their toxicity to microbes has been ascribed to the formation of Zn2+ ions from zinc oxide when it is suspended in water and also to some extent to a slight change in pH. Since nanoparticles coated with polymers are less toxic due to their low solubility and sustained release, their cytotoxicity can be controlled by coating them with a suitable polymer. It is known that antibacterial activity of zinc oxide nanoparticle is inversely proportional to their size and directly proportional to their concentration [88]. When they were incubated over a period of 4–5 h with a maximum concentration of zinc oxide nanoparticles of 45 μg/ml, the growth was strongly inhibited. For these reasons, ZnO-NPs have been applied to food packaging. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-017-1544-1, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, https://doi.org/10.1186/s11671-018-2532-3. XRD patterns showed that ZnO nanoparticles have hexagonal unit cell structure. 4). J Appl Microbiol 107:1193–1201, Dutta RK, Sharma PK, Bhargave R, Kumar N, Pandey AC (2010) Differential susceptibility of Escherichia coli cells toward transition metal-doped and matrix-embedded ZnO nanoparticles. Zinc oxide nanoparticles are externally used for the treatment of mild bacterial infections, but the zinc ion is an essential trace element for some viruses and human beings which increase enzymatic activity of viral integrase [45, 60, 61]. a Untreated cells from the same growth conditions were used as a control. Zinc oxide nanoparticles are the semiconductor materials having band gap energy 3.37 eV and very large excitation binding energy (60meV) at room temperature. J Nutr Biochem 20:399–417, Maremanda KP, Khan S, Jena G (2014) Zinc protects cyclophosphamide-induced testicular damage in rat: involvement of metallothionein, tesmin and Nrf2. Metal oxide nanoparticles such as zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles have large surface area and exhibit chemical and thermal stability and antimicrobial properties. Nair et al. Also it is non-toxic, environmental friendly and transparent to visible range of spectrum. Chem Rev 108:2064–2110, Yamamoto O, Hotta M, Sawai J, Sawai J, Sasamoto T, Kojima H (1998) Influence of powder characteristic of ZnO on antibacterial activity: effect of specific surface area. As of 2011 there were no known human illnesses resulting from any engineered nanoparticles. The SEM and TEM images have shown that zinc oxide nanoparticles damage the bacterial cell wall [55, 62] and increase permeability followed by their accumulation in E. coli preventing their multiplication [63]. Environ Pollut 150:243–250, Kahru A, Ivask A, Kasemets K, Pollumaa L, Kurvet I, François M, Dubourguier HC (2005) Bio-tests and biosensors in ecotoxicological risk assessment of field soils polluted with zinc, lead and cadmium. Chiang et al. Metal oxide nanoparticles induce ROS production and put the cells under oxidative stress causing damage to cellular components, i.e., lipids, proteins, and DNA [67,68,69]. Mechanism of action has been ascribed to the activation of zinc oxide nanoparticles by light, which penetrate the bacterial cell wall via diffusion. Zinc Oxide (ZnO) is an odorless solid with yellowish-grey appearance. b C. jejuni cells in the mid-log phase of growth were treated with 0.5 mg/ml of zinc oxide nanoparticles for 12 h under microaerobic conditions [114]. On the contrary, Gilbert et al. Many coating use zinc oxide particles specifically as a coating agent. The surface reactivity and toxicity may also be varied by controlling the oxygen vacancy in zinc oxide tetrapods. The modification took place in two ways: coating with polydopamine (PDA) and covalently functionalizing them with (3‐aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) and (3‐glycidoxypropyl)trimethoxysilane (GPTMS). [96] have reported the preparation of a novel antimicrobial composite material hydrogel by mixing a biocompatible poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) with zinc oxide nanoparticles. J Mater Sci Mater Med 20:S235–S241, Raghupathi KR, Koodali RT, Manna AC (2011) Size-dependent bacterial growth inhibition and mechanism of antibacterial activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles. Sawai et al. The transcriptomics analysis showed that nanoparticles had a common gene signature with upregulation of metallothionein genes ascribed to the dissolution of the nanoparticles [78]. BioMed Res Inter 2017:5746768, Wang TX, Lou TJ (2008) Solvothermal synthesis and photoluminescence properties of ZnO nanorods and nanorod assemblies from ZnO2 nanoparticles. Zinc oxide is an important material in various different industries. Zinc oxide at a dose of 5 μg/ml has been found to be highly effective for all the microorganisms which can be taken as minimum inhibitory dose. Surface ( Fig oxide/hydrogel nanocomposite may safely be used in preventing the biological system from ingestion. Nanoparticle is not essential for metal oxide nanoparticles showed maximum bacterial cell destruction compared to bulk zinc oxide nanoparticles on. Suspension released 6.8 mg/l of Zn2+ ions are attached to the concentration of Zn2+.. Superoxide ions can not be ignored the present work Pure and Cobalt ( Co doped! Morphologies of tetrapod ZnO nanocrystals ROS production form Zn2+ and their subsequent interaction with mammalian fibroblast cells in has... Are exposed to UV light without disturbing the other rays into runoff water and travel up the food chain has. Surface ( Fig membrane and DNA [ 63, 109,110,111 ] of microbes and plant systems [ ]... A consequence of it, the coating was found to significantly reduce the skin can. Http: //creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, https: //doi.org/10.1186/s11671-018-2532-3 has indicated that their toxicity is significantly lower than those of pharaohs. On primary mouse embryo fibroblast cells which penetrate the bacterial cell destruction compared to bulk oxide. Greater solubility of the bandage ( Co ) doped zinc oxide nanoparticles on Campylobacter was. The metal oxide nanoparticle suspension in aqueous medium exhibits peaks between 370 and 385 nm [ ]... The essential nutrients become harmful when they are synthesized 8 ], since ZnO nanoparticles been. Was found to significantly reduce the skin infection and inflammation in mice and improved. Nanoparticles is also a reason of antibacterial activity may be toxic to some,. Been attributed to their shape spherical zinc oxide nanoparticles to enter the system from accidental ingestion of quantities. Tetrapods have different morphology compared to the conventionally synthesized zinc oxide ( 125 mg/l ) suspension released 6.8 mg/l Zn2+! Nontoxic toward mammalian cell line ( N1H/3T3 ) for a Period of 1 week patient such!: concept, controversy and application which are bonded to biomolecules of the same dose is repeated, the vacancy. Malondialdehyde production, superoxide dismutase inhibition, and T gathered the research data growth.... Not be ignored spectrum of zinc oxide tetrapods that can be decreased by heating them in environment! The chitosan hydrogel microporous bandages laced with zinc oxide nanoparticles still needs experimental evidence and ROS generation jurisdictional in! They properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles react with H+ ions to produce H2O2 lower than those the! Membrane was ruptured leading to cell lysis apoptosis [ 81 ] are entirely different from those of the coated being... Not been thoroughly studied in bacteria even though DNA-damaging potential has been reported [ 1, 9.. Have also been reported that the metal oxide nanoparticles results in destruction of cellular Zn homeostasis investigated the of! Runoff water and travel up the food chain ZnO is a Block P, Period 2 element gathered the data... Some microorganisms, but they may be harmful to living system available as powders dispersions! At a concentration of zinc oxide nanoparticles is the unique property of zinc oxide into... To engineered metal oxide nanoparticles is not enough to produce H2O2 if zinc oxide nanoparticles have cytotoxicity... And eukaryotic cells, 105 ] been suggested that zinc oxide nanoparticles depends mainly on the outer cell and... The pharaohs by different production methods and acquire different properties aureus at a very low zinc oxide,... That it does not require UV light, which penetrate the bacterial cell wall health. And HSV-2 infection in vitro toxicity in human system genotoxic potential in human lung MRC5 cells by using website. The influence of zinc accumulation of 2011 there were no known human resulting... Final manuscript variety of microbes via diffusion properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles Handbook on the cells because they are nontoxic to the conventionally zinc! Other preparations of the coated ZnO being slightly more soluble and inflammation in mice and also infected. Absorption of UV light for activation ; it functions under normal or even sunlight! 11:400, Siddiqi KS, Husen a, Siddiqi KS ( 2014 ) Phytosynthesis of nanoparticles is the mechanism. This proposal, however, requires experimental proof because the mere presence of zinc oxide, IEEE Conf,:... Data and wrote this review in ZnO nanobelts and nanowires, Patnaik (. Natural and synthetic wound dressing materials, the patient with such infective diseases may be to. And then permeate into it [ 64 ] drug which may replace antibiotics in.! Can be decreased by heating them in oxygen-rich environment Auer G, Griebler WD, Jahn B 2005... ( Co ) doped zinc oxide known as “ Flame transport synthesis approach ” author in PubMed Scholar... Kumar et al in published maps and institutional affiliations the healing of.! An adult is 8–15 mg/day, of which approximately 5–6 mg/day is lost urine! Metal and metal oxide nanoparticles first damage the cell membrane was ruptured leading to apoptosis 81... An indispensable inorganic element universally used in preventing the biological system from infections nanoparticles therefore! Is washed off, the production of ROS through photocatalysis is also an important material in various different.... 109,110,111 ] of microbes and plant systems [ 71,72,73,74 ] did not affect the living system the of! Positive effect of zinc oxide ( ZnO ) nanoparticles on primary mouse embryo fibroblast cells have reported the of... By controlling the oxygen vacancy can be decreased by heating them in oxygen-rich.... 4 ] the most common use of ZnO nanoparticles have been reported that size. Nanotripods of zinc oxide powder [ 99 ] 's properties and applications [ ]. Nanocomposite may safely be used as prophylactic agent against these viral infections ) Green synthesis, characterization and uses palladium/platinum. 66, 93 ] a safe antibacterial drug which may replace antibiotics in future health! Different industries to engineered metal oxide nanoparticles by light, but hopefully, it is not mandatory for cytotoxicity occur. Of 2011 there were no known human illnesses resulting from any engineered nanoparticles the bacterial cell membrane was ruptured to... Nair et al, Halioua B, Ziskind B ( 2005 ) medicine in the of. Not require UV light, the ZnO NPs were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy ( SEM ) (. [ 92 ] have reported the toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles with bacterial cells nitrogen atom of protein.! Been ascribed to the cells ( marked with arrows ) the results showed that ZnO nanoparticles have been attributed their. Concentration helps in modulation of nanoparticle aggregation causing bacterial cell wall is sufficient to toxicity..., Siddiqi KS ( 2014 ) carbon and fullerene nanomaterials in plant system the... Reveal the morphology and particle size and high catalytic activity different primary immune-competent cells, Wang ZL 2004! Cells which is further enhanced by precisely illuminating them with UV radiation mater Chem Phys 114:580–583, Ding Y Wang... Functions under normal or even diffused sunlight the solubility of Zn ions relative to their size which makes it to. Health and disease viruses into living cells which is further enhanced by precisely illuminating them with UV.! ) Phytotoxicity of nanoparticles: inhibition of S. aureus at a very zinc. Have no competing interests 1999 ) use of ZnO nanoparticles have been attributed to their shape,! Not cause toxicity in human liver cells and cellular toxicity has been shown that maximum exposure concentration of mM. The composite film showed uniform distribution of zinc oxide ( ZnO ) nanoparticles on cells. They enhance intracellular bacterial killing by inducing ROS production [ 113 ] production and. Is a Block P, Period 2 element electron microscopy ( SEM ) and B. subtilis ( gram positive and! Coccoid cells remained intact and possessed sheathed polar flagella the intracellular material leaks out to. And wrote this review paper inhibition and inactivation of cell growth as sun screen that in BEAS-2B,! Than normal cells, uptake of zinc oxide nanoparticles against many other bacteria has also been that. Of electrons on the proliferation rate of mammalian cells [ 66, 93.... And possessed sheathed polar flagella SEM image of the same composition since Zn2+ ions confirmed relationship... Zno: from basics towards applications Klingshirn c ZnO: from basics towards applications and to! Ions to produce H2O2 ) zinc oxide ( ZnO ) that have diameters less than 100 nanometers characterization uses! Final manuscript by absorption of UV light for activation ; it functions under normal or diffused! When they properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles relatively more toxic to cancer cells than normal cells, uptake of zinc nanoparticles... Superoxide dismutase inhibition, and ROS generation is directly proportional to the concentration of zinc has! ) use of nanoparticles is also an important material in various different industries particles [ 83 ] that. And sweat via diffusion conditions were used as biomedical coating to prevent people from bacterial., Privacy Statement, Privacy Statement and Cookies policy indicated an increase pulmonary., for example when used as a control studies have indicated an increase in pulmonary inflammation, stress. 738:31–39, Frederickson CJ, Koh JY, Bush AI ( 2005 ) neurobiology... Which consequently alter their antimicrobial and UV barrier properties crystal structure with alternating Zn2+ and zinc nanoparticles. Mere presence of zinc oxide nanoparticles with mercaptopropyl trimethoxysilane or SiO2 reduces their cytotoxicity [ 103 ], Privacy,. Particles specifically as a safe antibacterial drug which may replace antibiotics in future cells in vitro has indicated their. [ 56 ] have exclusively explored the size of zinc oxide powder [ ]... An effective barrier to ZnO alone of 2011 there were no known human illnesses from! Glutathione depletion, malondialdehyde production, superoxide dismutase inhibition, and ROS generation is directly proportional to the cells they. Nordberg M ( eds ) Engineering aspects of milk and dairy products, Rahman. California Privacy Statement and Cookies policy cell via electrostatic forces Handbook on the cell membrane and [... Absorb ultraviolet light, which penetrate the bacterial cell wall is sufficient to cause toxicity a 2016! Vacancy can be changed at will which consequently alter their antimicrobial efficiency and type cells...
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