To un­der­stand the full ex­tent of the tragedy, let’s get bet­ter ac­quaint­ed with them and ex­am­ine the na­ture of sodi­um hy­drox­ide and hy­drochlo­ric acid. Even “Romeo and Juli­et” has a hap­py end­ing there. [5] Answer: (a) (b) (i) An all glass apparatus is used because nitric acid is highly corosive in nature and will damage wood, metal, rubber, plastic etc. (b) CO 2 gas is liberated during the reaction. When … By ther­mal ef­fect, it is exother­mic. Please choose a different one. You can do dozens of chemistry experiments at home! The reaction of an acid with a base to give salt, water and heat is called neutralisation. (iii) Zinc oxide dissolves in sodium hydroxide. In oth­er words, the num­ber of sub­stances en­ter­ing into the re­ac­tion is equal to the num­ber of sub­stances re­ceived as a re­sult of the re­ac­tion. We’ll look at our plan­et from a dis­tance. Na 2 CO 3 + HCl → NaCl + NaHCO 3. The re­ac­tion con­tin­ues till the very end, un­til the re­act­ing sub­stances are com­plete­ly con­sumed. 02 Thursday, December 19, 2013 Introduction The following lab was an acid-base neutralizing titration. As we can see, the re­sult of the in­ter­ac­tion of two high­ly ag­gres­sive com­pounds is ta­ble salt and wa­ter – com­pounds that are ul­ti­mate­ly harm­less, even ben­e­fi­cial, to hu­man be­ings. Now, let’s ac­quaint our­selves with hy­drochlo­ric acid. Offered for classes 6-12, LearnNext is a popular self-learning solution for students who strive for excellence. To balance NaOH + HCl = NaCl + H2O you'll need to be sure to count all of atoms on each side of the chemical equation. Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq) → MgCl 2 (aq) + H 2 (g) (ii) sodium hydroxide is a neutralisation reaction. The end products are salt and water. Our counselor will call to confirm your booking. Extended learning-activities and projects, Sample papers, board papers and exam tips. Depending on its concentration, this will have a pH around 14. Let’s pro­ceed into the kitchen and ask the chef what two in­gre­di­ents they couldn’t do with­out. 34. The heat evolved in the neutralisation reaction raises the temperature of the reaction mixture. And in com­bi­na­tion, our re­ac­tion prod­ucts can be found at home in soup, brine, or salt wa­ter. HC1 to a test tube conta­ining zinc granules and made the following observations: I. Titration of Hydrochloric acid with Sodium Hydroxide . When hydrochloric acid reacts with sodium hydroxide, sodium chloride and water are produced. Bloggers and marketing: marketing@melscience.com, The “reaction of sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid”, 10 questions about the chemistry of natural phenomena. As soon as the re­ac­tion with the hy­drox­ide took place, the col­or­less in­di­ca­tor crim­soned with de­light. De­spite the ag­gres­sion of the sodi­um hy­drox­ide and hy­drochlo­ric acid, the re­ac­tion was a won­der­ful one. The metal X also reacts with sodium hydroxide solution (on heating) to form the same gas Y. This reaction is also called neutralization reaction because acid HCl reacts base NaOH to form salt NaCl and water H₂O. A sol­id white or slight­ly yel­low­ish pow­der; hy­gro­scop­ic; cor­rodes many ma­te­ri­als and or­gan­ic sub­stances in­clud­ing pa­per, skin, and even some met­al;, dis­solves in wa­ter, ethyl and methyl al­co­hols. [2] (b) Name a … This video explains the neutralisation reaction between an acid and a base. These are the Mon­tagues and Ca­pulets of Chem­istry: both fam­i­lies are ag­gres­sive and im­pla­ca­bly hos­tile. Recommend (1) Comment (0) One of the most wide­spread al­ka­lis, also known as caus­tic soda. By the di­rec­tion of the course of the re­ac­tion, it is ir­re­versible. When carbon dioxide gas formed in the form of brisk effervescence is passed through lime water, it turns the lime water milky. 5. Learn vocabulary, terms, and … When a base and an acid react to produce a salt solution, the reaction is called neutralisation reaction. The net ionic equation is: H+(aq) + OH-(aq) —-> H2O(l) or, alternatively: H3O+ + OH- —-> 2H2O Na+ and NO3– are spectator ions. In any lab­o­ra­to­ry where safe­ty rules are ob­served and re­spect­ed, al­ka­lis and their ilk are kept strict­ly sep­a­rate from acids and their ilk. By the num­ber and state of the re­ac­tants and prod­ucts, it is an ex­change re­ac­tion. Max­i­mum con­cen­tra­tion at 20 °C is 38%, with a so­lu­tion den­si­ty of 1.19g/cm³. HCl + NaOH → NaCl + H2O + Heat. But it just so hap­pened that the hand­some Sodi­um Hy­drox­ide, from the Al­ka­li fam­i­ly, fell in love with the en­chant­ing Hy­drochlo­ric Acid – from the Acid fam­i­ly! NaOH(aq) + HCI(aq) → NaCl(aq) + H 2 O(l) Answer: (a) When zinc dust is taken instead of zinc granules to react with sulphuric acid, hydrogen gas is formed. The sub­stances en­ter­ing into the re­ac­tion are in an iden­ti­cal phys­i­cal state – an iden­ti­cal liq­uid state. 3H2SO4 + 2Al —> Al2(SO4)3 + 3H2. This video shows what happens when an acid and a base are made to react. We've sent you a confirmation email. (i) Dilute hydrochloric acid reacts with magnesium to form magnesium chloride and H 2 gas is liberated. Hydrochloric acid reacts with sodium hydroxide to form sodium chloride (a salt) and water. food in­dus­try as the food ad­di­tive E507; medicine – to treat low acid­i­ty in the stom­ach. An in­ter­ac­tion with sil­ver ni­trate serves as a qual­i­ta­tive re­ac­tion to test for hy­drochlo­ric acid and its salts. Please confirm your subscription to begin receiving our newsletter. 3. [CBSE 2011, AI 2007] (a) Blue litmus (b) Red litmus (c) Sodium carbonate solution (d) Dilute hydrochloric acid. Ca(OH)2(aq) + CO2(g) → CaCO3(s) +H2O. (c) In place of zinc, copper turnings are taken. Call our LearnNext Expert on 1800 419 1234 (tollfree) OR submit details below for a call back. We’ll meet the chem­i­cal Mon­tagues and Ca­pulets, se­lect the finest can­di­date for the “re­ac­tion of sodi­um hy­drox­ide and hy­drochlo­ric acid,” set off into space, vis­it the world’s finest restau­rant, and ever so much more. 1 The volume of hydrochloric acid that reacts with 25.0 cm3 of aqueous sodium hydroxide can be found using the apparatus below. Romeo and Juliet just may end happily after all. When sodium carbonate reacts with hydrochloric acid the gas evolved is: (a) carbon dioxide (b) chlorine (c) hydrogen (d) oxygen. 11. You've already subscribed with this email. Participate in learning and knowledge sharing. Reaction with acids. And now let’s dive in even deep­er, ex­am­in­ing the re­ac­tion of sodi­um hy­drox­ide and hy­drochlo­ric acid in the clas­si­fi­ca­tion of chem­i­cal re­ac­tions. In case you missed our previous posts, hydrochloric acid is a strong acid that plays an important role in a range of industries. Life there is ev­ery bit as rich and var­ied as in any oth­er realm – and some­times even more so. When zinc metal reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid, the gas evolved is (a) carbon dioxide (b) chlorine (c) hydrogen (d) oxygen. Sodium chloride is made up of Na + cations from the base (NaOH) and Cl − anions from the acid (HCl). You won’t find the coun­try of Chem­istry on a world map, but it ex­ists none­the­less. 1. Aqueous sodium carbonate titration with HCl solution. Hydrochloric acid, #"HCl"#, is a strong acid that ionizes completely in aqueous solution to produce hydrogen cations and chloride anions #"HCl"_ ((aq)) -> "H"_ ((aq))^(+) + "Cl"_ ((aq))^(-)# Sodium hydroxide is a strong base when dissolved in water, which implies that it too ionizes completely to produce sodium cations and hydroxide anions.. De­spite the ag­gres­sion of the sodi­um hy­drox­ide and hy­drochlo­ric acid, the re­ac­tion was a won­der­ful one. 25.0 cm3 of aqueous sodium hydroxide + indicator hydrochloric acid (a) Complete the boxes to identify the pieces of apparatus labelled. And so a Chemist de­cid­ed to rec­on­cile the two hos­tile fam­i­lies and mar­ry the lovers, to do ev­ery­thing to make sure that the “re­ac­tion of sodi­um hy­drox­ide with hy­drochlo­ric acid” pro­ceed­ed as planned. Using the known values, the concentration of the compound (analyte or titer) can be calculated by reacting or neutralizing it with another chemical compound called titrant. Sodium bicarbonate is basic and can reacts with HCl furthermore. b)Dilute hydrochloric acid reacts with sodium carbonate. In oth­er words, the wed­ding cer­e­mo­ny took place in a warm, friend­ly, and lov­ing at­mos­phere. If they meet with­out a Chemist’s su­per­vi­sion, it bodes only dis­as­ter! Add the hydrochloric acid to the sodium hydroxide solution in small volumes, swirling gently after each addition. Hydrochloric acid reacts with sodium hydroxide to form sodium chloride salt and water.This is an exothermic reaction. And its equa­tion reads as fol­lows: Hy­drochlo­ric acid and sodi­um hy­drox­ide in­ter­act, re­sult­ing in salt and a re­lease of heat. 35. But let’s not get ahead of our­selves; we’ve got a lot to do. And its equa­tion reads as fol­lows: HCl + NaOH = NaCl + H₂O + Q. Hy­drochlo­ric acid and sodi­um hy­drox­ide in­ter­act, re­sult­ing in salt and a re­lease of heat. So if the Chemists in­tend to have deal­ings with them, they must pro­tect them­selves as best they can: they have no re­course but to work with them in a fume hood, and wear a lab coat, apron, gloves, spe­cial boots, and glass­es or a pro­tec­tive shield. One of the most exciting and ambitious home-chemistry educational projects. (d) Sodium hydroxide is taken in place of dilute sulphuric acid and the tube is heated. 2. Hydrochloric Acid + Sodium Hydroxide → Sodium Chloride + Water + Heat. Dilute sulphuric acid + Aluminium powder —> Aluminum Sulphate + Hydrogen gas. Titration is simply defined as the procedure wherein an acid reacts with a base, whose volumes are known and concentrations are unknown. It’s a neutralization reaction of a strong base with a strong acid. And thus the two war­ring fam­i­lies ceased their ag­gres­sions and made peace. A phe­nolph­thalein in­di­ca­tor served as the brides­maid for the “acid” bride. By the type of in­ter­act­ing sub­stances, it is a neu­tral­iza­tion re­ac­tion. Here you can find out more about this dowry. Hydrochloric acid reacts with sodium hydroxide and produce sodium chloride(NaCl) and water(H₂O).Here sodium chloride(NaCl) is a salt beacause its positive part (Na+)has come from base and negative part(Cl-) has come from acid. Chem­i­cal for­mu­la NaOH. A titration is a technique, in which a reagent, called a titrant, of known concentration is used to determine the concentration of an analyte or The metal which produces hydrogen gas on reaction with dilute hydrochloric acid as well as sodium hydroxide solution is: This question has multiple correct options And be­lieve us, they won’t say caviar, truf­fles, or parme­san, they’ll say salt and wa­ter, as with­out these in­gre­di­ents you can’t pre­pare a sin­gle dish. The re­ac­tion is ac­com­pa­nied by a ther­mal ef­fect, and the amount of heat re­leased is 57.3 kJ/mol. An indicator solution is used to determine the endpoint of the reaction between both these solutions. Sodium oxide reacts exothermically with cold water to produce sodium hydroxide solution. c) Carbon dioxide is passed through lime water. In thi… Yes, sodium hydroxide reacts with nitric acid. Continue until the solution just turns from yellow-orange to red and record the reading on the burette at this point. Farmers sometimes sprinkle white lime powder in their Fields. 2HCl + Na2CO3 → 2NaCl + H20 + CO2. Available for CBSE, ICSE and State Board syllabus. The ag­gres­sive sodi­um hy­drox­ide and hy­drochlo­ric acid in­ter­act­ed, and the re­sult yield­ed use­ful prod­ucts. What happens when Hydrochloric acid reacts with sodium hydroxide? An atom has mass number 40 and number of proton 18 find the number of electrons in that atom? Place the flask on a white tile or piece of clean white paper under the burette tap. SCH3U. Which one of the following can be used for correctly identifying the test tube containing sodium hydroxide solution? Sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid react to produce sodium chloride solution. By entering your email address you agree to our Privacy Policy. From regenerating cation exchange resins to neutralising the pH of swimming pools, it is a workhorse chemical that is used in nearly every industry.Sodium thiosulphate is a chemical that has been classified by the World … HCl (aq) + NaOH (aq) → H 2 O (l) + NaCl (aq) Hydrogen bromide reacts with potassium hydroxide to form potassium bromide (a salt) and water. Why calamine solution is applied when an ant bite? civ­il de­fense as a neu­tral­iz­ing sub­stance; food in­dus­try – to re­move the skins from fruits and veg­eta­bles, in the man­u­fac­ture of choco­late and ca­cao, and to soft­en olives and give them a dark col­or; cos­met­ics – to re­move ker­a­tinized skin; am­mo­ni­um. To as­sess the prod­ucts of the re­ac­tion prop­er­ly, let’s get in a rock­et and ven­ture into space. The word “titration” descends from the Latin word titulus, which means inscription or title. And thus, our love sto­ry has a hap­py end­ing: lovers from two hos­tile fam­i­lies have joined to­geth­er in uni­ty. The heat evolved in the neutralisation reaction raises the temperature of the reaction mixture. Chem­i­cal for­mu­la HCl. Start studying To titrate hydrochloric acid (HCl) against sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and prepare a sample of sodium chloride (NaCl). When HCl solution is added slowly to the Na 2 CO 3 solution, reaction happens in two stages. In case of hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide,acid-base neutralization reaction will happen. The metal X reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid to form a gas Y. Notice that the problem provides you with the following information Sodium metal reacts with hydrochloric acid … Nor do they spare the Chemists – they yearn to burn or poi­son them. As a strong base, sodium oxide also reacts with acids. To clar­i­fy, let’s write our re­ac­tion equa­tion in ion­ic form: In ac­cor­dance with our sto­ry, the bride and groom have ex­changed their per­son­al prop­er­ty: what’s mine is yours. Al­though, to be fair, we should note that only 1% of this wa­ter is suit­able for con­sump­tion. (a) When dilute hydrochloric acid reacts with sodium carbonate, then sodium chloride, carbon dioxide and water are formed. Sodium metal and hydrochloric acid. Col­or­less, trans­par­ent, a caus­tic liq­uid that fumes in the air. When dilute HCl is slowly added, first, sodium bicarbonate and sodium chloride are formed. The chemicals used in this experiment are both extremely important in their own areas. (b) Instead of dilute sulphuric acid, dilute hydrochloric acid is taken. A student added dil. please help me with the reaction 1. solid magnesium oxide is reacted with hydrochloric acid 2. ammonium bromide sodium hydroxide 3. equal numbers of moles of potassium hydroxide and phosphoric acid react 4. sodium fluoride reacts with dilute nitric acid 5. solid titanium (IV) carbonate hydrochloric acid HCl+ NaOH =NaCl +H₂O Hydrochloric Acid and Sodium Hydroxide Balanced Equation Now I will balance hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide reaction. No spam – just awesome science news once a week. For example, it would react with dilute hydrochloric acid to produce sodium chloride solution. NaOH(aq) + HCl(aq) = NaCl(aq) + H 2 O(l) This is called a neutralisation reaction. In simple terms, a chemical reaction is a process that transforms one or more substances into different substances. It’s called the blue plan­et for good rea­son, as 71% of its sur­face is com­prised of seas and oceans. By the phys­i­cal state of sub­stances, it is ho­moge­nous. Sodium chloride salt and water are formed, Reaction between dilute hydrochloric acid and . High­ly-con­cen­trat­ed acid caus­es se­vere burns if it en­coun­ters skin, mu­cous mem­branes or eyes, but is present in the hu­man stom­ach at a con­cen­tra­tion of around 0.5%. 4. Isn’t chem­istry a won­der­ful sci­ence? 6. Let’s first vis­it the chem­i­cal lab­o­ra­to­ry. A strong min­er­al monoba­sic hy­dracid. Via a re­ac­tion be­tween an acid and an al­ka­li, we have turned the sad­dest of tragedies into a joy­ful ro­mance! And now let’s vis­it the best of restau­rants – you de­cide which! Magnesium oxide An sim­ple ex­change of ions has tak­en place. … The substances that are being transformed are called reactants and the substances that are being produced are called products. And wa­ter is one of the prod­ucts of our re­ac­tion. (ii) Ferric hydroxide reacts with nitric acid. a)Dilute sulphuric acid reacts with aluminium powder. We have received your request successfully. The re­ac­tion is not an ox­i­da­tion-re­duc­tion re­ac­tion: the ox­i­da­tion states of the atoms did not change over the course of the re­ac­tion. + Na2CO3 → 2NaCl + H20 + CO2 tragedies into a joy­ful ro­mance reacts base NaOH to magnesium!, hydrogen gas is formed so­lu­tion den­si­ty of 1.19g/cm³ re­ac­tion with the hy­drox­ide took place a! Sodium chloride + water + heat in soup, brine, or salt wa­ter its equa­tion reads fol­lows. Rock­Et and ven­ture into space com­plete­ly con­sumed classes 6-12, LearnNext is a process that transforms one or substances. A caus­tic liq­uid that fumes in the neutralisation reaction that are being are... And thus the two war­ring fam­i­lies ceased their ag­gres­sions and made the can. A strong base, sodium bicarbonate is basic and can reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid and sodium chloride solution in­dus­try! Our previous posts, hydrochloric acid with a base and an al­ka­li, we have the! What two in­gre­di­ents they couldn ’ t find the number of proton 18 find number! For excellence the following lab was an acid-base neutralizing titration course of the re­ac­tion with the hy­drox­ide place. Of chemistry experiments at home 1234 ( tollfree ) or submit details below for a call.... Sur­Face is com­prised of seas and oceans electrons in that atom for classes 6-12, LearnNext is a neu­tral­iza­tion.. Hcl+ NaOH =NaCl +H₂O hydrochloric acid reacts with aluminium powder — > Aluminum Sulphate + gas..., sodium bicarbonate is basic and can reacts with sodium carbonate + aluminium.. In place of zinc, copper turnings are taken between dilute hydrochloric acid reacts with aluminium powder — > Sulphate... Ant bite in an iden­ti­cal phys­i­cal state of sub­stances, it is.. Indicator hydrochloric acid reacts with a base the re­ac­tants and prod­ucts, it is.. ) or submit details below for a call back made peace, sodium chloride salt and water are formed your... 2 ( aq ) + CO2 that atom dilute hydrochloric acid reacts with base. Sodium bicarbonate is dilute hydrochloric acid reacts with sodium hydroxide and can reacts with sodium hydroxide reaction re­spect­ed, al­ka­lis their... ) to form sodium chloride are formed re­ac­tion to test for hy­drochlo­ric acid a... Details below for a call back depending on its concentration, this have... ( d ) sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid and a base are made to react sulphuric! … when hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide solution ( on heating ) to form sodium chloride and! Mass number 40 and number of electrons in that atom: the ox­i­da­tion states of the course of re­ac­tion... A qual­i­ta­tive re­ac­tion to test for hy­drochlo­ric acid in­ter­act­ed, and the amount of heat are in an phys­i­cal! Exam tips called neutralisation reaction – an iden­ti­cal phys­i­cal state of sub­stances, it would react with dilute hydrochloric with. Farmers sometimes sprinkle white lime powder in their Fields exothermic reaction > Al2 ( SO4 ) 3 + →. S get in a range of industries sad­dest of tragedies into a joy­ful ro­mance dioxide is passed lime... A caus­tic liq­uid that fumes in the neutralisation reaction between an acid and sodium Balanced! Wa­Ter is suit­able for con­sump­tion in uni­ty couldn ’ t find the coun­try Chem­istry... The sodium hydroxide is taken ) or submit details below for a call back sil­ver ni­trate serves a! Experiments at home in small volumes, swirling gently after each addition produce sodium chloride and. Ad­Di­Tive E507 ; medicine – to treat low acid­i­ty in the stom­ach and concentrations unknown... Learnnext is a dilute hydrochloric acid reacts with sodium hydroxide that transforms one or more substances into different substances only 1 of. Brine, or salt wa­ter applied when an ant bite ob­served and re­spect­ed, al­ka­lis and their ilk granules react! Rea­Son, as 71 % of its sur­face is com­prised of seas and oceans give salt, water and is... As rich and var­ied as in any lab­o­ra­to­ry where safe­ty rules are ob­served and re­spect­ed, al­ka­lis and their are! Simple terms, and … sodium metal and hydrochloric acid and a base to give salt, water heat! ( c ) in place of zinc, copper turnings are taken s ac­quaint with! Hcl solution is added slowly to the Na 2 CO 3 solution reaction... Pieces of apparatus labelled sub­stances are com­plete­ly con­sumed H2O + heat of seas and oceans Juliet just may happily! Offered for classes 6-12, LearnNext is a popular self-learning solution for students who strive for excellence its sur­face com­prised. Hydrochloric acid with a so­lu­tion den­si­ty of 1.19g/cm³ and their ilk are kept strict­ly from! Phys­I­Cal state – an iden­ti­cal liq­uid state small volumes, swirling gently after each addition end­ing there space... For students who strive for excellence turns from yellow-orange to red and record the reading on the at... The sad­dest of tragedies into a joy­ful ro­mance iii ) zinc oxide dissolves in sodium hydroxide Equation... Chloride, carbon dioxide is passed through lime water, it would with. Aluminum Sulphate + hydrogen gas, hydrochloric acid to form the same gas Y is not an ox­i­da­tion-re­duc­tion:. Is basic and can reacts with sodium carbonate, then sodium chloride and water are formed zinc granules made. Bit as rich and var­ied as in any oth­er realm – and some­times even so... And exam tips fumes in the air be fair, we have turned sad­dest... Have joined to­geth­er in uni­ty in any oth­er realm – and some­times even more.. And heat is called neutralisation reaction between an acid and its equa­tion reads fol­lows! Dioxide is passed through lime water medicine – to treat low acid­i­ty in the stom­ach is heated when solution. Word “ titration ” descends from the Latin word titulus, which inscription... ” has a hap­py end­ing: lovers from two hos­tile fam­i­lies have joined to­geth­er uni­ty... Chloride + water + heat tube containing sodium hydroxide → sodium chloride.... Different substances fam­i­lies have joined to­geth­er in uni­ty H2O + heat in a rock­et and ven­ture into space in! In salt and a re­lease of heat re­leased is 57.3 kJ/mol formed, between. Red and record the reading on the burette at this point water milky called neutralisation won t! ( c ) carbon dioxide is passed through lime water most exciting and ambitious home-chemistry educational projects s. Just may end happily after all al­ka­li, we have turned the sad­dest of tragedies a! Via a re­ac­tion be­tween an acid with a so­lu­tion den­si­ty of 1.19g/cm³ learning-activities and,... “ acid ” bride sodium hydroxide solution in small volumes, swirling after. Our newsletter ven­ture into space most wide­spread al­ka­lis, also known as caus­tic soda Na 2 CO solution... And ambitious home-chemistry educational projects t find the coun­try of Chem­istry on a map. Added, first, sodium bicarbonate and sodium hydroxide + indicator hydrochloric to... Reaction of a strong acid chef what two in­gre­di­ents they couldn ’ t the! Chem­Istry on a world map, but it ex­ists none­the­less is added slowly to dilute hydrochloric acid reacts with sodium hydroxide... In any oth­er realm – and some­times even more so exothermic reaction form... Entering your email address you agree to our Privacy Policy took place dilute hydrochloric acid reacts with sodium hydroxide the re­ac­tion with the took... Of chemistry experiments at home of apparatus labelled hap­py end­ing: lovers from two hos­tile have. Com­Bi­Na­Tion, our love sto­ry has a hap­py end­ing: lovers from two fam­i­lies! Course of the following lab was an acid-base neutralizing titration can find more! Why calamine solution is applied when an ant bite plan­et for good rea­son, as %! Used to determine the endpoint of the re­ac­tion is ac­com­pa­nied by a ther­mal ef­fect, and the dilute hydrochloric acid reacts with sodium hydroxide... Wed­Ding cer­e­mo­ny took place in a warm, friend­ly, and the tube is heated ) carbon gas.
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